My girlfriend and I booked this cruise about a month ago. On Monday there was an engine fire which has now left us in port in St Thomas. Expected stops were in Barbados, St Lucia, St Kitts, and St Maarten. I am on mobile so please give me some time to respond.


Edit #1: questions have started to slow but I am a constant lurker and will continue to answer questions until there is no interest. I appreciate everyone stopping by and allowing me to share this experience!

Edit #2: we are departing st Thomas tonight and will be in San Juan tomorrow morning. I will not have cell service while at sea but will continue to answer any questions when I receive service again. Thanks for stopping by everyone!

Comments: 1013 • Responses: 85  • Date: 

Daggaroth325 karma

Are they going to refund your ticket?

Murphey14710 karma

Yes. A full refund, including gratuities is given to us. They are also giving us a 50% discount for a future cruise and any transportation to San Juan, including airfare and taxi. Essentially this is an inexpensive vacation.

FrequentlyInfrequent303 karma

not a question, but that's a pretty good attitude you got there and I just wanted to comment on it

Murphey14411 karma

Thanks! It's not like we are being treated poor either. They are still entertaining us and letting us off the ship too.

chrispdx61 karma

You were lucky that the fire happened when you were in port. They can replenish ship supplies and conditions won't become nearly as bad as other ships that have broken down in the middle of the ocean. Have fun!

Murphey1487 karma

Agreed! We were very fortunate. Plus, we're stranded in the Caribbean in a us complaints on my end!

Xanola39 karma

Yeah life is rough, stuck in tropical paradise, whatever will you do?

Murphey1445 karma

Indeed. Very tough. Woe is me.

lovelyfeyd10 karma

It sounds pretty sweet compared to sitting in my office right now. Enjoy!

Murphey1410 karma

Thanks brother!

I_SHIT_A_BRICK20 karma

It's not like we are being treated poor either.

Old friends went on a cruise and something happened that left them stranded in a port-of-call a few years ago. They thanked the staff for all the extra work they had to put in and it ended up getting them even more free stuff. Please do bear in mind that it does keep the staff from enjoying their time off to ensure that you enjoy your extra time.

Murphey1424 karma

I understand this. I think it's messed up they refunded gratuities. Pay these mother fuckers!

Bndsfn200419 karma

I was on the Carnival Liberty a few years ago. We didn't get stuck anywhere, but the positive attitude and service does not surprise me a bit. Looks like you've gotten a pretty good deal out of the inconvenience.

Murphey1420 karma

Agreed! At the end of the day they are selling customer service now and trying to retain a clientele.

atlasMuutaras13 karma

I mean, if you HAVE to be trapped someplace, being trapped on a cruise liner without having to pay for a thing is making out pretty well.

Murphey148 karma

Agreed! I'm thoroughly enjoying myself.

zartcosgrove130 karma

DAAANG that is a hell of a sweet deal. Follow up question: did you know they were going to be so generous before you set the fire?

Murphey14108 karma

I was actually hoping our next cruise would be free...

chancrescolex45 karma

So what you're saying is that you're going to start an engine fire every time you take a cruise...

Murphey1436 karma

I'm debating doing that now!

ApriKot37 karma

As someone who works in the cruiseline business, thanks for being positive. You have no idea how awful the calls are for this sort of thing. People think it's literally the end of the world.

Murphey1436 karma

I want to let you know how much I appreciate you guys!

LumpenBourgeoise17 karma

So are you tipping the staff like a champ given that they cover gratuities? Or am I missing something?

Murphey1427 karma

Fuck yes! They deserve it! And a raise! The staff has been nothing but awesome.

no-cat16 karma

Only 50%? Royal caribbean gives full refund + credit for future cruises in the same amount as what you paid for the current cruise. Bf was stuck on the Grandeur in 2013 when it caught on fire.

Murphey1414 karma

I know right? Carnival pls.

deathputt4birdie14 karma

A full refund, including gratuities

Can you find out if the staff still going to get tipped? That would suck if they weren't, because the tip can be as much as 50% of their salary.

Murphey1418 karma

I would love to find out. I'm still tipping them because I realize how much they depend on them.

deathputt4birdie6 karma

Good for you! It's amazing how nice the majority of the staff are on cruiseships.

Murphey146 karma

They are mostly foreigners too. Idk. I love my cruise ship staff and I appreciate them. I just feel sorry because I know they will probably receive less of a paycheck when they deserve more.

professional_giraffe13 karma

Hey if they're actually going to give back your gratuities, I'd start giving them out. The people on the boat just lost a cruise's worth of work and tips, and could probably use whatever they could get anyway. If it's possible, of course.

Murphey1417 karma

Definitely! We paid 268 in prepaid gratuities. That's going back to them. They deserve more then that.

Chubbstock9 karma

keep in mind that if you accept a refund, you lose most of your ability to sue them if you are so inclined. (not saying you are, not saying you will, just saying it's a thing that happened on the infamous poopy cruise a few years ago)

Murphey1413 karma

Thank for the advice! I'm not suing. Ain't got time for that!

TravisCan226 karma

At least you got to port in St Thomas. That place is gorgeous.

Has this, now being yet another faulty Carnival ship, deterred you from booking with Carnival again?

Murphey14173 karma

A little. We will go on another one because of the discount. After that it will depend mostly on price and destinations.

Lowdownsound107 karma

I've been on two with Royal Caribbean and they were absolutely awesome. Also. Pro-tip. Try not to go during hurricane season.

Murphey1423 karma

Yeah I didn't do my research there. I didn't realize that this is peak hurricane season. Luckily we haven't encountered any storm.

BeardMilk20 karma

If you are still on St. Thomas, there is a little BBQ truck up by Sapphire Bay called "Off the Grid". It is unbelievable, you should go.

Edit: Found a pic from my last trip there...

Murphey1412 karma

Hmm I will investigate this. I have no clue where sapphire Bay is in relation to us.

vitaminz199017 karma

See if you can use that discount on any of their subsidiary cruise lines like Princess.

Murphey1410 karma

Good idea! I think I'll investigate when I get home.

biggjoe4u26 karma

Just my opinion but, don't let what happened to this ship discourage you from cruising with Carnival. They have more ships sailing than any other cruise line. So they will have more problems.

The Liberty runs that route constantly without a break for months. When they dock on Sunday, they refuel and restock and right back out.

Mechanical parts break down. You just hope that you can catch it before it does.

Murphey146 karma

This has definitely not deterred me. It's actually shown me how much carnival cares. They could have left us to find our own way home or given us shit service, but they didn't. They've been nothing but awesome. I understand they are also in damage control, but it's refreshing to know what kind of service you'll get in this situation.

survivalsnake170 karma

  1. Is this your first cruise?
  2. Has this soured your experience on cruising in general?
  3. What was the general morale of the passengers - upset, accepting, etc.?

Murphey14390 karma

This is my 3rd cruise, all with carnival. It has not soured my experience and the staff has been very pleasant. Everyone's attitude has varied. Some are very accepting, others upset. I have been finding the African American people the most upset.

A_Cheeky_Fuck222 karma

African American people the most upset.

They're just the loudest.

Murphey14124 karma

You are probably right.

spaceman_spiffy4 karma

How do you know all the Africans on your cruise are American?

Murphey145 karma

I don't. Good point. Some have Caribbean accents so they may be from different parts of the Caribbean but the ones I'm referring did not share the same accent.

Sherblock-14 karma

That was... casually racist? I mean most of reddit is, but that was very blatant.

Murphey141 karma

Sorry man. I'm just being honest.

khamylion-103 karma

I know two people who are also on that cruise with you. They are actually in really high spirits about the whole situation. Said the only thing they were disappointed about was the fact that they couldn't stay the entire time. I guess they are being flown back to San Juan today.

All in all they have said that the way they see it is they got paid ($150.00 ship credit) to stay in a floating hotel in St. Thomas. And with 50% off their next cruise they can wait until next year to see the other destinations on the trip.

From what I understand there is lots to do both onboard the ship (all amenities fully functional) and onshore, so they don't see it as an inconvenience at all. There are worst places to be stranded than on a Caribbean island.

I have been reading some cruise ship employee AMAs and it sounds like the employees have more fun on those cruises than the guests do. How are they taking this whole thing? Have you been able to befriend any of them and gotten invited to secret after hours cruise employee parties?

Murphey1470 karma

Everything you hear is 100% correct. I am very friendly with everyone, but especially staff because they work hard and have been a delight. Unfortunately, no invitation has been given. We were scheduled to fly to Miami but they cancelled our seats and will stay on board until the ship is towed to San Juan where we will continue our original flight plans.

khamylion-18 karma

Oh interesting, is that true of all passengers or just you? (Referring to flight plans)

Murphey1426 karma

I am unsure. I think only time will tell. But our other people we were dining with also had plans after the cruise in San Juan and Florida. I think it depend on asking to cancel or find lodging really.

quest4748474874 karma

Did you buy trip insurance? How much is it and what does it cover? Is the food amazing? Do you have to pay for drinks or is it included?

Murphey14106 karma

We did not buy trip insurance. In total we probably spent close to 1500 a person for our room, airfare, and excursions. The food is quite tasty, even more so that it is free. Alcohol is between $6 and $10 a drink with an all day $50 alcohol pass. Sodas also cost money before, but now are giving them away for free.

quest4748474859 karma

What if wake up in the middle of the night and want a snack, is there a place on the ship you can go?

Murphey14128 karma

Yes! There's 24 hour pizza and ice cream. A buffet is also served from 11pm to 1am.

quest4748474842 karma

Sounds good. How many flavors of ice cream? How much research did you do before deciding on what ship to book a cruise on?

Murphey1457 karma

3 in total. Strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla. In soft serve and frozen yogurt. I did a lot of research. We originally planned to go on royal Caribbean but the dates did not align with my girlfriends work schedule so we settled on carnival.

quest4748474829 karma

What's the staff like? I've read they work very hard. What kind of entertainment have you seen on board? Comics? Drag shows?

Murphey1442 karma

They work extremely hard. I think they are the real saviors for our cruise. They have entertainment shows every night. I haven't been to one on this cruise. They have comedy shows every night too. I have enjoyed those.

quest4748474819 karma

Is there a formal dinner night where everybody dresses in their Sunday best? Who decides who get to sit at the captains table? Have you met anyone interesting on board? Is the wi-fi free?

Murphey1420 karma

They do have a formal dinner! Ours was on Tuesday. I actually haven't seen the captain or his table. We don't socialize or party much. The most interesting people we met were from other cruise ships that came in and were interested to hear what was going on with us.

motodriveby12 karma

The buffet is only open for 2 hours?! Or did you mean 11 am to 1 am..

Murphey1435 karma

Sorry for the confusion. The buffet has set hours for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The late night snack is from 11pm to 1am, which was in response to if there's anything open late at night . As for the exact hours of the buffet, I am unsure as we have eaten off ship for lunch and in the dining room for dinner.

motodriveby19 karma

Cool thanks! I can't believe you even answered that, after I wrote it I was like "Do I even care..."

That seems a bit pricey for a cruise, I saw another answer about 1500 a piece or so? Or did that include airfare and everything else, like total expense for the trip?

Murphey1411 karma

Yes, that was the total expense. We also have a balcony cabin, which is more expensive. We could have paid maybe $800 for the cruise and airfare only. Excursions are between $50 and $150 a person for each port dependent on what you do.

similar_observation10 karma

If you paid by a Visa Signature card, you also have travel accident insurance. It's a perk of the card. Check your card's benefits. There's all sorts of neat shit they give you for travel, rentals, and even price protection for electronics.

Murphey1412 karma

Thanks for the tip. I have barclaycard arrival. I'll have to check their policy regarding travel insurance.

budlightrules3 karma

Wait so you need a $50 pass to pay 6-10 on a drink? That could get really expensive really quickly. hiccup Are we talking $6 for a Bud Light?

Murphey141 karma

I think it's like spirits mostly. You would have to drink a bit to make it worth the cost. And it's not the whole cruise, just the day.

unsupported50 karma

It could be worse, you could be stranded at sea... ammiright? My wife and I loved out Carnival Cruise. What is the general mood of the other passengers? Are they all cool with it, or are they pissed off?

Murphey1449 karma

You are definitely right! People think of it as half glass full or half glass empty. Some people had plans for after the cruise and I've noticed they are more cheerful than those who were planning on going straight home. I think more are upset.

Alaira31421 karma

I've noticed they are more cheerful than those who were planning on going straight home

Maybe this is because of stress related to finding childcare or work coverage beyond the planned vacation. I know I'd be pretty stressed out if I was suddenly told "oh, sorry, we need to stay here. No, I don't really know when you'll get back home." and then had to negotiate with my boss by phone(do you guys even have phone coverage there? When I went on a cruise last, my phone stopped working at all, not even roaming, once we were away from FL) to try to not get fired for failing to show up for my shifts. Remember that some people, when stressed, take it out as anger.

Murphey1412 karma

I'm with you! We had plans for key West on Sunday and I was stressed on what we were going to do. Fortunately, I have no kids and really no commitment other than to myself, work, and girlfriend. I am understanding of the situation, but just making an observation

similar_observation45 karma

Well, I'd take a ship fire over norovirus any day.

Since you and your girlfriend are nurses. Had there been a medical emergency on board, would you turn off "vacation mode" and go directly to "work mode?"

Where do you plan on going with your discount cruise? I heard Alaska is nice.

Murphey1422 karma

Definitely. As nurses you have to be prepared to act when not in uniform and really it is our duty. It probably helps that we both work in critical care as well and care for medical emergencies fairly well.

I had not thought of an Alaskan cruise, but have been told they are awesome. It would be good for us because we are from California, so traveling would cost less and take hours compared to a whole day. We did discuss using our discount on an Alaskan cruise but haven't thought too much about it.

sstair13 karma

An Alaskan cruise would be the way to go, since they are the most expensive (no off season rates), and would maximize your 50% off.

Just make sure your cruise doesn't have a crap schedule, like Holland America's Amsterdam. One port was only 3 hours long, and another was at night, when all the interesting things to do were closed.

Murphey145 karma

Thanks for the tip! I will definitely keep this in mind!

CentralHarlem37 karma

Have you ever read David Foster Wallace's essay "A Supposedly Fun Thing I Will Never Do Again"?

Murphey1414 karma

I haven't. Please enlighten me on it.

FU-allthetime36 karma

You know that's not supposed to happen. Sometimes the engines don't catch fire. They are designed not to do that. Obviously this ship was not designed that way.

Do you know if it will be towed out of the environment soon?

Murphey1414 karma

I think it will be towed tomorrow or Saturday. I think the room is damaged along with one of the engines but they claim the suppression system stopped the fire. The communication is not very good honestly and that's my only complaint.

naimnotname36 karma

How much sex are you having right now in order to pass the time?

Murphey1486 karma

Minimum once a day. Depends how drunk she gets.

bornagainredditor33 karma

Fire aboard a ship. No bueno'.

Did this happen at sea or in port?

Murphey1446 karma

This occurred in Port. My girlfriend and I were halfway across the island and came back to everyone off the ship. We didn't know what happened until we asked around.

kingvicarious29 karma

What shenanigan is Gilligan up to now?

Murphey1465 karma

I saw him trying to make a coconut radio. Wasn't working...

sippysippy1321 karma

Who is the maddest person you've come across due to the engine fire?

Murphey1431 karma

One guy was yelling that he didn't even want to come to st Thomas, and now he's stuck here. He wanted to be let off and he'd find his own way home. They wouldn't let him. I'm sure he left yesterday when first wave of flights left to go back to the US.

samwise091216 karma

On a more personal note, what are your favorite films?

Murphey1419 karma

I am not much of a movie guy. Probably anchorman and school of rock are my favorite movies, I love comedy. Guilty pleasure are Disney/Pixar movies.

jayadee15 karma

Is Guys Burger Joint still open at least? Best burgers ever, seriously. Are you guys planning to go home early or take your stay somewhere else?

Murphey1415 karma

It is open! So delicious! They are chartering a majority to Miami, Orlando, San Juan, and Atlanta where they will catch commercial connecting flights. We were scheduled to have a Miami flight but we also had plans in key West after the cruise. So instead, we will stay on board. The plan is to tow the ship to San Juan with an arrival on Sunday, where we will disembark and continue onto our original flight.

Craftmasterkeen10 karma

Please tell me someone has fired up "I'm on a boat" -lonely island! Did you remember your swim trunks and your flippy floppies?

Murphey1411 karma

I'm sure they have. There's a DJ every day on the deck. We haven't been on the ship. We've been using this as a time to explore St Thomas and St John.

ViciousVentura7 karma

Oh St. John is my favorite! Have you snorkeled at Trunk Bay?

Murphey146 karma

My girlfriend loves St John. We did go to trunk Bay! It was wonderful. Very clear water and fish everywhere.

Rex_Laso2 karma

St. John is incredible. Go wander.

Murphey141 karma

Unfortunately it is a little pricey. We will be in St Thomas at least one more day and are probably going to go back there tomorrow before our ship departs back to San Juan.

RulesRape2 karma

The trick to St. John is to bring lunch, pay for the ferry and a Jeep for the day. Cost you ~$200 for the day and you can go anywhere on the island at your whim- there are so many amazing beaches and views.

Murphey143 karma

Thanks for the tip! Unfortunately we never planned on going to st John so I know very little about it.


Is everyone alright? Hope none of the crew were injured.

Murphey1414 karma

No one was injured. Thank God.

The_Bard6 karma

Did the captain try to convince you it was just a power outage and ask passengers to go back to their rooms?

Murphey147 karma

We were not near the ship when it occurred, but everyone evacuated. We were not allowed back on until almost 9pm. It was quite uncomfortable because there is limited places to sit. I actually fell asleep on the ground at some point.

MenstruatingMuffin6 karma

After reading some of the thread here, you've mentioned being on 3 cruises before all with carnival.

What was your initial decision to go with Carnival and would you ever go with a different company?

I've been on 3 cruises myself, all with Royal Caribbean, but I've talked with many people that have been with multiple companies before and have said that they prefer RC over all the others.

I saw you mentioned that the dates didn't align up when you were looking at an RC cruise, do you think that you may want to give them a shot next time?

From personal experience I can tell you that the dining room food is exceptional (I've heard some cruises only have "okay" (proper) dining room meals), the staff go above and beyond to make sure that your vacation goes as smooth as possible. and the ships are rock-solid and extremely well kept. Even some of the older ones.

Murphey145 karma

Prior cruises were with carnival because I was with my parents and they were paying (I was a teen). I wanted to go on royal Caribbean but this vacation was planned at the end of July when my girlfriend had her vacation approves from work. The royal Caribbean left on Saturday but I could not get our airfare arranged to make it in time so we were almost forced on carnival if we wanted to go on a cruise, which is what we were set on. I would love to try royal Caribbean though and almost wish we still chose them but decided to go somewhere else. My brother had told me to try royal Caribbean because he's cruised more than I have. It's nice to hear another endorsement for royal and will try them in the future.

_YEAH_6 karma

Will you ever willingly subject yourself to a floating prison again?

Murphey1433 karma

I love cruising. But I know they aren't for everyone. I am definitely going to keep cruising.

camel_towe3 karma

Are you getting super drunk ?

Murphey143 karma

Yes. I'm on my 3rd yard long margarita.

torniz3 karma

Have you given up yet? Is all hope lost?

Murphey146 karma

Nah man. I'm having a great time. They are letting us stay on the ship until Sunday. They are planning on taking the ship back to San Juan at some point, either tomorrow or Saturday.

neubillic3 karma

Why do an AMA instead of taking your girlfriend down to the lower decks and practicing making babies on your "free cruise?"

Murphey1412 karma

We're actually off the ship, drinking in a bar. There will be plenty of practice later today.

SkydiverRaul133 karma

It could be worse. Remember that Carnival cruise a few years back that had raw sewage coming out of the toilets in each stateroom? That would totally suck.

Murphey143 karma

Agreed! I'm glad that didn't happen to us!

mcdonaldstrump3 karma

Is the casino still open?

Murphey146 karma

5pm to 4am it is open.

nate8003 karma

I've heard that cruises tend to be full of "unclassy" people. Have you found this to be true? I don't mean this to be insulting to you in any way, please don't take it as me calling you trashy haha

Murphey143 karma

Mmm I think so. Plenty of trashy people on board but it was the least expensive so I can't say I didn't expect it.

yomoxu3 karma

How does an engine catch fire?

Murphey143 karma

Idk. Fuel or oil leak maybe?

theguywhospoke2 karma

Have they told you how the fire started? Was it a mechanical fault?

Murphey141 karma

They have only said that the cause is unknown.

KepalaButo1 karma

How's it going?

Murphey141 karma

Good! Thanks!

BackWithAVengance1 karma

I went on a carnival cruise in Feb, and am going again next Feb. I will say that you got lucky with this happening in port! But my question is

A) did you go to formal dinner, and if so, how many lobster tails did you eat.

B) what movies are they playing tonight on the big deck?

C) Will you snag me a couple towels?

Murphey141 karma

Only 1. I stuffed myself with guy fieri burgers at their grill. Oops. I didn't look at tonight but so far they've played San Andreas, pitch perfect 2, inside out, and 1 more that I don't remember.

ibanezjerk1 karma

OP, St. Lucia was my favorite! St. Maarten was shit. Which one were you looking forward to going to most?

Murphey143 karma

Barbados. We had a surf lesson scheduled. That's the one I was looking forward to most.

hempfu1 karma

Why do you like cruises?

Murphey142 karma

I feel they are a good value. As much food as you want, entertainment, etc. Plus I love to travel and see different places. Unfortunately did not meet that last goal this time but still saw places I'd likely not see again for years.

coshok1 karma

When do you think you'll be able to leave St. Thomas? Or are you just enjoying getting to stay there a couple extra days?

Murphey141 karma

I love it here. Disappointed to not see the other islands but this is a great place to be "stranded." The plan is to leave St Thomas tomorrow or Saturday and arrive in San Juan where we will disembark and continue with our original flight plans and itinerary in the Florida Keys.

carnahanad1 karma

I'm supposed to board that ship in a week. Do you think it will all be fixed up or should I plan an alternate vacation?

Murphey142 karma

Call carnival and ask. Have a back up just in case but expect to be refunded I think.

boogerbrains1 karma

What are your plans now for the next several days?

Murphey142 karma

It is dependent on the ship. Flights from St Thomas to the US will continue today and tomorrow so we will likely explore St Thomas and St John. I think tomorrow is st John. It just depends when they will let us off the ship everyday and what we want to do. We are currently drinking in a bar.

Dookiestain_LaFlair1 karma

Are you worried about a terrorist attack on one of those ships? Everyone is essentially unarmed and trapped. Also your life is in the hands of a private company and not a national government, does this give you pause? Thanks for answering questions and I hope you have a great vacation.

Murphey142 karma

I've thought about it but it hasn't crossed my mind much. They put your bag through a scanner prior to boarding and when you leave the ship and come back they scan your carry on and you walk through a metal detector. Honestly, I do not feel worried.

McFlare921 karma

Did you go to magens Bay to pass the time?

Murphey141 karma

Yesterday! That place was gorgeous. Girlfriend liked st John more so she was not impressed, but I loved it. They are providing free shuttles there today but she didn't want to go. Most of the guests that are not leaving today were lined up to go.

[deleted]0 karma


Murphey145 karma

3 reasons: price, it fit our schedule, and because these are the destinations we wanted to go. When you think about it, carnival has multiple ships leave every week. Why they happen more on carnival though, I couldn't tell you.

AProstituteStrangler1 karma

Royal Caribbean just had a fire a few weeks ago while in port. I love Carnival and will keep cruising with them. I only wish I was on the cruise right now!

Murphey141 karma

That's the thing. Other cruise lines have issues as well, but I feel carnival gets more publicity.

jtree007-1 karma

The reason Carnival is in the news more then the other lines comes from the fact that they are the largest and have a have far more serious incidents on their ships, even when considering the size of the fleet. Plus the they are the only major cruise company to have a serious accident in recent memory, the Costa Concordia (Costa is owned by Carnival)

Murphey141 karma

A valid point. Definitely did not think of that before. Carnival owns quite a few other cruise lines.

kassieplx0 karma

Oh boy, this happened to me once as a kid. Took a cruise that left from Florida, and on the way back a hurricane hit port so we just had to park in the ocean for a few extra days until the weather cleared up. It was wild.

My question : any crazy stories about people on the boat not taking it well? Some people started freaking out when it happened to me, started hoarding food at meals, etc. Has that been happening to you, or is it less bad because you're docked in a city and csn get off?

Murphey141 karma

It was bad when it happened because we were all waiting on the docks and they didn't communicate what was going on very well. They did buy bottled water for us and subway sandwiches/pizza. But people were very upset and constantly asking staff what was happening, when they themselves didn't know. As I said before, the staff has been wonderful and really caring. I didn't witness any hoarding, but we weren't stuck in the middle of the ocean. We also have all the essentials: water, electricity, and food.